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Onto Day Two of this weekend’s EFL action at Wembley. Sunday’s League One Play-off Final will be Charlton vs Sunderland, a replay of 1998’s classic Championship Play-off Final. That crazy day, Sunderland lost 7-6 on penalties after a 4-4 draw. So, this match has a lot to live up to. Form


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Sunderland's Climate Emergency Declaration is a commitment to reducing carbon emissions and pollution, to help create a 'greener, cleaner' living environment. View more in Sunderland marks World Environment Day ( 5 June )


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On the north side of the river, was settled in 674 when granted land to to found.
In 685, Ecgfrith further granted Biscop the land adjacent to the monastery on the south side of the river.
As the river separated this land from the monastic community, it was henceforth referred to as the "sunder-land", and would grow as a fishing settlement before being granted a charter in visit web page />West of the medieval village of Sunderland on the south bank, was founded in 930.
Sunderland grew as a port, trading and.
Ships began to be built on the river in the 14th century.
By the 19th century, the port of Sunderland had absorbed Bishopwearmouth and Monkwearmouth, owing to the growing economic importance of the shipbuilding docks.
Following the decline of the city's traditional industries in the late 20th century, the area grew into a commercial centre for the automotive industry, science and technology and the service sector.
It therefore seems likely that he was born in or near Sunderland.
Indeed, Bede later wrote that he was "ácenned on sundorlande þæs ylcan mynstres" born in a separate land of this same monastery ; here, "sundorlande" translates literally as "separate land" but could refer to the village of Sunderland.
Alternatively, it is possible that Sunderland was later named in honour of Bede's connections to the area, by people familiar with this statement of his.
A person from Sunderland is sometimes known as a.
However, as this term originated as recently as the early 1980s, its use and acceptance by Sunderland residents, particularly among the older generations, is not universal.
At one time, Sunderland-built ships were called "Jamies", in contrast with those from Tyneside, which were known as "Geordies", although in the case of "Jamie" it is not known whether this was ever extended to people.
Sunderland was created a of in 1835.
Under theit was given the status of a County Borough, independent from control.
In 1974, under thethe county borough was abolished and its area combined with that of other districts to form the Metropolitan Borough of Sunderland in Tyne and Wear.
In 1986, was abolished, and Sunderland became aonce again independent from county council control.
The metropolitan borough was granted after winning a competition in 1992 to celebrate the 40th year on the throne.
The population of the city taken at the 2011 Census was 275,506.
Historic map of County Durham.
Sunderland was part of until the local government changes in 1974.
The is words. princess jewelry box game remarkable here passing through the city ofbefore reaching the North Sea in Sunderland.
Although it is amany public services in the are provided in cooperation with neighbouring local authorities.
For instance, the covers the five now independent boroughs of Tyne and Wear, plus the neighbouring county of.
The covers the five boroughs only.
Since 2014, the has been a member of thewhich is an alliance of the five former boroughs of and the neighbouring counties of and.
However, Sunderland is still a unitary authority; are voluntary alliances, in which local authorities agree to pool certain responsibilities and receive delegated functions from central government.
For instance, thebetter known by its brand name Nexus, is now an executive body of the.
This road was the route of the old A19, now it is the A1018.
Much of the city is located on a low range of hills running parallel to the coast.
On average, it is around 80 metres.
Sunderland is divided by the River Wear which passes through the middle of the city in a deeply incised valley, part of which is known as the Hylton gorge.
The three road bridges connecting the north and south portions of the city are the at Pallion, the just to the north of the city centre and most recently the between Castletown and Pallion.
To the west of the city, the carries the dual-carriageway over the Wear see map below.
Most of the suburbs of Sunderland are situated towards the west of the city centre with 70% of its population living on the south side of the river and 30% on the north side.
The city extends to the seafront at Hendon and Ryhope in the south and in the north.
In Millfield, the streets are all associated with plants, e.
Chester, Fern, Rose, Hyacinth etc.
The smaller Urban Subdivision follows the boundaries of what is considered the city itself, however, the USD alone has not been given city status.
The larger metropolitan borough contains other settlements with a separate identity such asbut has been given official city status, with all individual settlements being the responsibility of Sunderland city council.
In the Sunderland borough boundary, as well as the aforementioned areas, landscape features and facilities such as much of the River Don and Wear basins, the George Washington Hotel Golf and Spa complex, Sharpley Golf Course, Herrington Country Park, Houghton Quarry and Penshaw Hill are within the green belt area.
Its location in the of theas well as other mountain ranges to the west, such as those of the and southwestern Scotland, make Sunderland one of the least rainy cities of Northern England.
The climate is heavily moderated by the adjacentgiving it cool summers, and winters that are mild considering its latitude.
The closest weather station is inabout 8 miles 13 km north of Sunderland.
As a result, Sunderland's coastline is likely slightly milder given the more southerly position.
Another relatively nearby weather station in is having warmer summer days and colder winter nights courtesy of its inland position.
Climate data for Tynemouth, 1981—2010 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C °F 7.
According to statistics based on the 2001 census, 60% of homes in the Sunderland arewith an average household size of 2.
Three percent of the homes have no permanent residents.
The most ethnically diverse ward of the city was the now defunct Thornholme area which had a population of 10,214 in 2001.
This ward, which included Eden Vale, Thornhill, as well as parts of Hendon, Ashbrooke and the city centre, has long been the focus of Wearside's Bangladeshi community.
Nowadays the Barnes ward, which contains part of former Thornholme ward, has the highest percentage 5.
The 2001 census also recorded a substantial concentration of Greek nationals, living mainly in Central and Thornholme wards.
The least ethnically diverse wards are in the north of the city.
The area of is made up of 99.
The Sunderland USD had a population of 174,286 in 2011 compared with 275,506 for the wider city.
Both of these figures are a decrease compared with 2001 figures that showed the Sunderland USD had a population of 182,758 compared with 280,807 for the wider city.
In 2011, the Millfield ward, which contains the western half of the city centre, was the most ethnically diverse ward in Sunderland.
Millfield is a multiracial area with large Indian and Bangladeshi communities, being the centre of Wearside's Bangladeshi community along with neighbouring Barnes.
The ward's ethnicity was, in 2011, 76.
Other wards with high ethnic minority populations include Hendon, Barnes, St Michael's and St Peter's.
In 2011, the least ethnically diverse ward was the Northside suburb Redhill which was 99.
This ward has so few ethnic minorities that it can even be compared to rural wards in Cumbria and it also proves there is a lot of contrast between areas when it comes to ethnicity.
Here is a table comparing Sunderland and the wider City of Sunderland Metropolitan Borough as well as.
In the Sunderland Urban Subdivision, 6.
Sunderland is less ethnically diverse than andmainly because of many outlying suburbs to the south, north and west of the city sunderland casino boxing as St Chad's, and which have very high White British populations.
The Parliament constituency largely omits these areas.
However, in 2001, the Sunderland USD was 96.
It has been in the since the was restored in 1850.
The 2011 census recorded that 70.
Jewish heritage in the city, once part of a thriving community, can be dated back to around 1750, when a number of Jewish merchants from across the UK and Europe settled in Sunderland, eventually forming a congregation in 1768.
A from was established in the city in 1790.
After a rapid growth in numbers during the latter half of the nineteenth century, the Jewish community in Sunderland reached its height in the mid 1930s, when around 2,000 Jews were recorded to be living in the town.
The community has been in slow decline since the mid-20th century.
Many Sunderland Jews left for stronger Jewish communities in Britain or to Israel.
The Jewish primary school, the Menorah School, closed in July 1983.
The on Ryhope Road, opened in 1928, closed at the end of March 2006.
See also The Jewish population of the Sunderland Metropolitan Borough is continually diminishing, as the Jewish population fell from 114 people in 2001, to 76 people in 2011.
During his ministry at Monkwearmouth, Boddy was influenced by the and also by the British-born Norwegian preacher T.
In the early years of the 20th century All Saints, Monkwearmouth became an important centre for the development of the Pentecostal Movement in Britain.
In the mid-1980s, Sunderland's economic situation began to improve following the collapse of shipbuilding in the town.
Japanese car manufacturer opened the factory in more info, and the first car was produced later that year.
The factory and its supplier companies remain the largest employers in the region, with current cars produced there including thethe and the electric.
As of click over 500,000 cars are produced annually, and it is the UK's largest car factory.
Also in the late 1980s, new moved into sites such as the in the south west of the city, attracting national and international companies.
Sunderland was named in the shortlist of the top seven "intelligent cities" in the world for the use ofin 2004 and 2005.
The former shipyards along the Wear were transformed with a mixture of residential, commercial and leisure facilities including St.
Peter's Campus of the University of Sunderland, University accommodation along the Fish Quay on the South side of the river, the North Haven housing and marina development, thethe and Hylton Riverside Retail Park.
Also in 2007, the Echo 24 luxury apartments opened on Pann's Bank overlooking the river.
In 2008 the opened adjacent to the Stadium of Light, containing the only between and.
This was followed by adjacent redevelopments on Park Lane.
Sunderland Corporation's massive post-war housing estate developments atand have all passed into the ownership of previously 'Sunderland Housing Group'a private company and a.
In 2004, redevelopment work began in the Sunniside area in the east-end of the city centre, including aarestaurants, a and.
Originally the River Quarter, the site was renamed Limelight in 2005, and renamed in 2008, when it became Sunniside Leisure.
Sunniside Gardens were landscaped, and a number of new cafes, bars and restaurants were opened.
Up-market residential apartments were developed, including the Echo 24 building.
Sunderland City Council's Unitary Development Plan UDP outlines ambitious regeneration plans for a number of sites around the city.
The plans are supported byan urban regeneration company funded by the City council, and the.
Vaux and Farringdon Row Since the closure of the in 1999, a 26-acre 11-hectare has lain dormant in the centre of Sunderland.
The land is subject to dispute between supermarket chainwho bought the site in 2001, and Sunderland arc, who submitted plans for its redevelopment in 2002.
During formal negotiations, Tesco stated they would be willing to sell the land to arc, if an alternative city centre site could be found.
Possibilities include Holmeside Triangle, and the Sunderland Retail Park in Roker.
Arc hope to begin development in 2010.
Arc's plans for the site were approved by the Secretary of State in 2007, and include extensive office space,leisure and retail units, residential apartments and a new £50 m.
The central public arcade will be located under an expansive glass canopy.
It is hoped an "" can be encouraged which will complement the city's nightlife.
In 2013 in the area opposite the Vaux site, Sunderland City Council announced the project, a new public space designed to commemorate Sunderand's maritime heritage, which was completed in May 2015.
Construction commenced in 2014.
Stadium Village Redevelopment of the Monkwearmouth Colliery site, which sits on the north bank of the river Wear opposite the Vaux site, began in the mid-1990s with the creation of the.
In 2008, it was joined by the.
The Sheepfolds industrial estate occupies a large area of land between the Stadium and the.
Sunderland arc are in the process of purchasing land in the Sheepfolds, with a view to relocate the businesses and redevelop the site.
The emphasis of development plans include further sporting facilities, in order to create a Sports Village.
Other plans include a hotel, residential accommodation, and a linking the site with the Vaux development.
Grove and Transport Corridor The Sunderland Strategic Transport Corridor SSTC is a proposed transport link from the A19, through the city centre, to the port.
A major phase of the plan is the creation of awhich will link the Wessington Way on the north of the river with the Grove site in Pallion, on the south of the river.
In 2008, Sunderland City Council offered the residents of Sunderland the opportunity to vote on the design of the bridge.
The choices were a 180-metre 590 ft iconicwhich would result in a temporary increase inor a simple which would be within the council's budget.
The results of the consulatation were inconclusive, with residents keen to have an iconic bridge, but reluctant to have a subsequent increase in tax to fund it.
Regardless of the ultimate design of the new bridge, the landing point will be the former Grove Cranes site in.
Plans for this site focus around the creation of a new residential area, with homes, community buildings, commercial and retail space.
The Port The Port of Sunderland, owned by the city council, has been earmarked for medium-term redevelopment with a focus on mixed-use industry.
Once hailed as the "Largest Shipbuilding Town in the World", ships were built on the Wear from at least 1346 onwards and by the mid-18th century Sunderland was one of the chief shipbuilding towns in the country.
The Port of Sunderland was significantly expanded in the 1850s with the construction of Hudson Dock to designs by River Wear Commissioner's Engineer John Murray, with consultancy by.
One famous vessel was thethe clipper in which sailed, and on which he began his first novel.
She was one of the most famous ships of her time and can claim to be the finest ship ever launched from a Sunderland yard.
Competition from overseas caused a downturn in demand for Sunderland built ships toward the end of the 20th century.
The last shipyard in Sunderland closed on 7 December 1988.
Sunderland, part of the Durham coalfield, has a coal-mining heritage that dates back centuries.
At its peak in 1923, 170,000 miners were employed in County Durham alone, as labourers from all over Britain, including many from Scotland and Ireland, entered the region.
As demand for coal slipped following World War II, mines began to close across the region, causing mass unemployment.
The last coal mine closed in 1994.
The site of the last coal mine, Wearmouth Colliery, is now occupied by theand a miner's monument stands outside of the ground to honour the site's mining heritage.
Documentation relating to the region's coalmining heritage are stored at the NEEMARC.
As with the coal-mining and shipbuilding, overseas competition has forced the closure of all of Sunderland's glass-making factories.
However, there has been a modest rejuvenation with the opening of the which, amongst other things, provides international glass makers with working facilities and a shop to showcase their work, predominantly in the artistic rather than functional field.
Vaux Breweries was established in the town centre in the 1880s and for 110 years was a major employer.
Following a series of consolidations in the Britishhowever, the brewery was finally closed in July 1999.
Vaux in Sunderland and in had been part of the Vaux Group, but with the closure of both breweries it was re-branded The Swallow Group, concentrating on the hotel side of the business.
This was subject to a successful take-over by in the autumn of 2000.
In 1855, opened a bottleworks, producing glass bottles, with 6 sites at nearby and at Diamond Hall, Sunderland.
In May 2002 the was extended to Sunderland in an official ceremony attended by The Queen, twenty-two years after it originally opened in Newcastle upon Tyne.
The line now stretches deeper into and into Sunderland, incorporating,as well as and stations at the and both campuses of the before terminating at.
The trains run every 12—15 minutes and call at all stations.
All-zones Metro tickets cost £5 for a daily and £21 for a weekly, as of August 2017.
In March 2014 Metro owner Nexus proposed an extension of the network by the creation of an "on-street" tram link which would connect the city centre to to the north and Doxford Park to the west.
It is situated on an underground level.
It was renovated in 2005, backed by the artistic team which designed the stations along the Wearside extension of the in 2002.
It is situated on the served by direct services to Newcastle,andas well as further afield toand the Gateshead.
These services run hourly in each direction, cut from half-hourly on 12 December 2005.
From 1998 to 2004, Northern Spirit and subsequently ran bihourly direct trains from Sunderland to via,and.
The services were withdrawn due to a change of franchise which saw the route gain a franchise in its own right, distinct from the Regional Railways network which Arriva had inherited.
Services now terminate at Newcastle, and a separate service also travels to Middlesbrough, but both only stretch as far as.
In 2006, announced plans to operate a direct service between Sunderland and viaa service which had been stripped from Wearside twenty years earlier.
A scaled-down service of one train each day began in December 2007, twelve months after the initial launch date, due to delays caused by restoring rolling stock and a protracted court case against which Grand Central won.
The service increased to three departures daily each way on 1 March 2008, connecting a line which can run from Edinburgh to London.
The service has proved so popular that daily fourth and fifth direct trains are now in operation.
When were announced as the winners of the franchise in November 2014 their plans included a daily service from Sunderland to London Kings Cross that commenced in December 2015.
Peter's Metro Station,and.
Sunderland is on the green line of the Tyne and Wear Metro and trains run every 12 minutes on Monday to Staturday daytimes and every 15 minutes on evenings and Sundays.
The fastest, largest and busiest road is thewhich is a running north-to-south along the western edge of the urban area, crossing the River Wear at Hylton, and providing access north to thejoining up with the to Edinburgh, and south throughlearn more here up with the via the atproviding an entirely connection between Sunderland and the.
The A19 originally ran through Sunderland city centre until the bypass was built in the 1970s; this route is now the A1018.
There are four main sunderland casino boxing which support the city centre.
The Durham Road terminates in the city centre, and runs to via the city of Durham.
The starts in the city centre, crosses the Queen Alexandra Bridge and runs through Washington to the.
Most of this road is.
The A1018 follows a direct route from Shields to Sunderland, the A183 follows the coast.
After crossing the bridge, the A1018 follows a relatively straight path to the south of Sunderland where it merges with the A19.
The A183 becomes Chester Road and heads west out of the city to the A1 at.
This is a bypass of the A1018 through Grangetown and Ryhope see more a stretch that commonly suffered fromespecially during.
The bypass starts just south of Ryhope, and runs parallel to the cliff tops into Hendon, largely avoiding residential areas.
The scheme will improve transport links around the city ensuring continuous dual carriageway between the A19 road and the port of Sunderland.
The scheme also includes the building of a new wear bridge between Pallion on the south embankment and Castletown to the north.
With 750,000 passengers per year it is the busiest bus and coach station in Britain after inand has won several awards for innovative design.
The majority of bus services in Sunderland are provided by andwith a handful of services provided by.
Besides these, there are also inter state and inter city route buses mainly operated by and.
A new Metro station was built underneath the bus concourse to provide a direct interchange as part of the extension to South Hylton in 2002.
The National Route 1 runs from Ryhope in the south, through the centre of the city, and then along the coast towards South Shields.
Britain's most popular long-distance — The 'C2C' — traditionally starts or ends when the cyclist dips their wheel in the sea on Roker beach.
The '' 'Wear-to-' route, and the 'Two-Rivers' Tyne and Wear route also terminate in Sunderland.
The port offers a total of 17 quays handling cargoes including forest products, non-ferrous metals, steel, aggregates and refined oil products, limestone, chemicals and maritime cranes.
It also handles offshore supply vessels and has ship repair and facilities.
The river berths are deepwater andwhile the South Docks are entered via a lock with an 18.
He wrote most of at as well as "".
Some parts of the area are also widely believed to be the inspiration for his Alice in Wonderland stories, such as Learn more here Castle and Backhouse Park.
There is a statue to Carroll in Whitburn library.
Lewis Carroll was also a visitor to the Rectory of Holy Trinity Church, Southwick; then a township independent of Sunderland.
Carroll's connection with Sunderland, and the area's history, is documented in 's 2007 graphic novel.
More recently, Sunderland-bornwriter of the series of books, has achieved fame and success, and many others such as thriller writerare following his lead.
The Salford-born painter was a frequent visitor, staying in the Seaburn Hotel in Sunderland.
Many of his paintings of seascapes and shipbuilding are based on Wearside scenes.
The on Fawcett Street and showcase exhibitions and installations from up-and-coming and established artists alike, with the latter holding an extensive collection of Lowry.
The National Glass Centre on Liberty Way also exhibits a number of glass sculptures.
In recent years, the scene in Sunderland has helped promote the likes of, and.
Other Mackem musicians include punk rockers "Nellie the Elephant", December 1984oi!
In May 2005, Sunderland played host to 's concert atattended by 30,000 visitors and which featured,and.
The Sunderlandhome tois recognised internationally as a major stadium concert venue.
Headlining acts have included;,,, and.
The Empire Theatre sometimes plays host to music acts.
The Manor Quay' the students' union nightclub on St.
Peter's Riverside at thehas also hosted the,and.
In 2009, the club was taken into private ownership under the name Campus and hosted,and but has since been returned to the university.
Since 2009, Sunderland: Live in the City has played host to a series of free and ticketed live music events throughout venues in the city centre.
Initially only intended to remain open for a fortnight, the store remains open and has hosted live performances from acts includingand.
Operated by international entertainment groupthe Empire is the only theatre between and with sufficient capacity to accommodate large productions.
It is infamous for playing host to the final performance of British comic actor who died of a heart attack whilst on stage in 1976.
The Royalty Theatre on is the home to the amateur Royalty Theatre Group who also put on a number of low-budget productions throughout the year.
Film producer belonged to this company before achieving worldwide fame and is now a patron of the theatre.
The area plays host to a number of smaller theatrical workshops and production houses, as well as the Theatre Restaurant, which combines a dining experience with a rolling programme of musical theatre.
It also has its own commercial station formerly an independent station it's now owned by media gianta "proper" community radio station and a hospital radio station —and can receive other north-eastern independent radio stations, and.
The current regional BBC radio station is.
The regional DAB multiplex for the Sunderland area is operated by Bauer DIGITAL RADIO LTD.
Sunderland's first film company was established in 2008; and is known as "Tanner Films Ltd" and is based in the area of the city.
The companies first film, "King of the North" starring and set in the area of the city; is currently under production.
The Mackem dialect has much of its origins in the language spoken by the population.
Although the accent has so much in common with the more popularthe dialect spoken in Sunderland is quite distinctive from the dialect spoken in Newcastle.
Only the porch and part of the west wall are what remain of the original monastery built in 674.
Main article: The earliest inhabitants of the Sunderland area were and artifacts from this era have been discovered, including found during excavations at.
During the final phase of the Stone Age, the c.
Evidence includes the former presence of a monument.
It is believed the inhabited the area around the in the pre- and post- era.
There is a long-standing local legend that there was a Roman settlement on the south bank of the River Wear on what is the site of the former Vaux Brewery, although no archaeological investigation has taken place.
Recorded settlements at the mouth of the Wear date to 674, when an nobleman, Benedict Biscop, granted land by Kingfounded the Wearmouth—Jarrow St.
Peter's on the north bank of the river — an area that became known as Monkwearmouth.
Biscop's monastery was the first built of stone in.
He employed glaziers from and in doing so he re-established in Britain.
In 686 the community was taken over byand Wearmouth—Jarrow became a major centre of learning and knowledge in with a library of around 300 volumes.
Thedescribed by White as the 'finest book in the world', was created at the monastery and was likely worked on bywho was born at Wearmouth in 673.
This is one of the oldest monasteries still standing in England.
While at the monastery, Bede completed the The Ecclesiastical History of the English People in 731, a feat which earned him the title The father of English history.
In the late 8th century, the raided the coast, and by the middle of the 9th century, the monastery had been abandoned.
Lands on the south side of the river were granted to the by in 930; these became known as Bishopwearmouth and included settlements such as which fall within the modern boundary of Sunderland.
In 1100, Bishopwearmouth parish included a village at the southern visit web page of the river now the East End known as 'Soender-land' which evolved into 'Sunderland'.
This settlement was granted a in 1179 bythen the.
From 1346 at Wearmouth, by a merchant named Thomas Menville.
In 1589, salt was made in Sunderland.
Large vats of were heated using coal.
As the water evaporated the salt remained.
This process, known asgave its name to ; the modern-day name of the area the pans occupied is Pann's Bank, on the river bank between the city centre and the East End.
As coal was required to heat thea community began to go here />Only poor quality coal was used in salt panning; quality coal was traded via the port, which subsequently began to grow.
In 1644 the North was captured by parliament.
The villages that later become Sunderland, were taken in March 1644.
One artifact of the English civil war near this area was the long trench; a tactic of later warfare.
In the village ofroughly three miles in land from the area, skirmishes occurred.
Parliament also blockaded thecrippling the Newcastle coal trade which allowed the coal trade of the area to flourish for a short period.
Because of the difficulty for colliers trying to navigate the shallow waters of the Wear, the coal was loaded onto keels large boats and taken downriver to the waiting colliers.
The keels were manned by a close-knit group of workers known as ''.
In 1719, the parish of Sunderland was carved from the densely populated east end of Bishopwearmouth by the establishment of a new parish church, today also known as Sunderland Old Parish Church.
The three original settlements Wearmouth Bishopwearmouth, Monkwearmouth and Sunderland had begun to combine, driven by the success of the port of Sunderland and salt panning and shipbuilding along the banks of the river.
Around this time, Sunderland was known as 'Sunderland-near-the-Sea'.
In 1794 were completed and in 1796 the world's second iron bridge was constructed in the city.
Sunderland, a main trading port at the time, was the first British town to be struck with the 'Indian cholera' epidemic.
The first victim, William Sproat, died on 23 October 1831.
Sunderland was put into quarantine, and the port was blockaded, but in December of that year the disease spread to and from there, it rapidly made its way across the country, killing an estimated 32,000 people.
Among those to die was Sunderland's Naval hero.
The novel The Dress Lodger by American author is set in Sunderland during the epidemic.
Demands for and organised town government saw the Borough of Sunderland created in 1835.
Sunderland developed on a plateau above the river, and never suffered from the problem of allowing people to cross the river without interrupting the passage of high masted vessels.
The was built in 1796, at the instigation ofthe forand is described by as being of superb elegance.
At the time of building, it was the biggest single-span bridge in the world.
Further up river, the was built in 1909, linking and.
In 1897, Monkwearmouth became a part of Sunderland.
Bishopwearmouth had long since been absorbed.
The hall was the scene of a on 16 June 1883 when 183 children died.
During achildren rushed towards a staircase for treats.
At the bottom of the staircase, the door had been opened inward and bolted in such a way as to leave only a gap wide enough for one child to pass at a time.
The children surged down the stairs and those at the front were trapped and crushed by the weight of the crowd behind them.
The of 183 children aged between three and 14 is the worst disaster of its kind in British history.
The memorial, a grieving mother holding a dead child, is located in Mowbray Park inside a protective canopy.
Newspaper reports triggered a mood of national outrage and an inquiry recommended that public venues be fitted with a minimum number of outward openingwhich led to the invention of 'push bar' emergency doors.
This law remains in force.
Victoria Hall remained in use until 1941 when it was destroyed by a bomb.
The public transport network was enhanced in 1900 - 1919 with an.
The trams were gradually replaced by buses during the 1940s before being completely axed in 1954.
The First World War led to a notable increase in shipbuilding but also resulted in the town being targeted by a raid in 1916.
The Monkwearmouth area was struck on 1 April 1916 and 22 lives were lost.
Many citizens also served in the armed forces during this period, over 25,000 men from a population of 151,000.
Sunderland viewed from above in 1967 With the outbreak of in 1939, Sunderland was a key target of thewho claimed the lives of 267 people in the town, caused damage or destruction to 4,000 homes, and devastated local industry.
After the war, more housing was developed.
The town's boundaries expanded in 1967 when neighbouring,and were incorporated into Sunderland.
During the second half of the 20th century shipbuilding and coalmining declined; shipbuilding ended in 1988 and coalmining in 1993.
At the worst of the unemployment crisis up to 20% of the local workforce were unemployed in the mid-1980s.
Some new industries developed in the area at this time, and the service sector expanded during the sunderland casino boxing and 1990s.
In 1986 Japanese car manufacturer opened its factory in Washington, which has since gone on to become the UK's largest car factory.
Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK Ltd in Sunderland.
Factory complex, including wind turbines, taken from Penshaw Monument From 1990, the banks of the Wear were regenerated with the creation of housing, retail parks and business centres on former shipbuilding sites.
Alongside the creation of the the has built a new campus on the.
The clearance of the site on the north west fringe of the city centre created a further opportunity for development in the city centre.
Sunderland received city status in 1992.
The 20th century saw established as the Wearside area's greatest claim to sporting fame.
Founded in free live boxing tv online as Sunderland and District Teachers A.
By 1936 the club had been league champions on five occasions.
They won their first inbut their only post- major honour came in 1973 when they won a.
They have had a checkered history and dropped into the old third division for a season and been relegated thrice from thetwice with the apologise, microsoft pandora's box game free download fantastic points ever, earning the club a reputation as a.
After 99 years at the historic stadium, the club moved to the 42,000-seat on the banks of the River Wear in 1997.
At the time, it was the largest stadium built by an English football club since the 1920s, and has since been expanded to hold nearly 50,000 seated spectators.
Like many cities, Sunderland comprises a number of areas with their own distinct histories,Monkwearmouth,and on the northern side of the Wear, and Bishopwearmouth and Hendon to the south.
Many fine old buildings remain despite the bombing that occurred during World War II.
Religious buildings include Holy Trinity Church, built in 1719 for an independent Sunderland, St.
Michael's Church, built as Bishopwearmouth Parish Church and now known as Sunderland Minster and St.
Peter's Church, Monkwearmouth, part of which dates from AD 674, and was the original monastery.
Andrew's Roker, known as the "Cathedral of the ", contains work byand.
On 24 March 2004, the city adopted St.
Benedict Biscop as its.
It takes place primarily along the sea front at Roker and Seaburn, Sunderland also hosts the free International Festival of Kites, Music and Dance, which attracts kite-makers from around the world to Northumbria Playing Fields, Washington.
Every year the city hosts a large memorial service, the largest in the UK outside in 2006.
Sunderland's inaugural film festival took place in December 2003 at the Bonded Warehouse on Sunderland riverside, in spite of the lack of any cinema facilities in the city at that time, featuring the films of local and aspiring directors as well as reshowings of acclaimed works, such as 'saccompanied by analysis.
By the time of the second festival commencing on 21 January 2005, a new cinema multiplex had opened in Sunderland to provide a venue which allowed the festival to showcase over twenty films.
The National Glass Centre opened in 1998, reflecting Sunderland's distinguished history of glass-making.
Despite sustained support from the the centre has struggled to meet visitor targets since it opened.
Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens, on Borough Road, was the first municipally funded museum in the country outside London.
It houses a comprehensive collection of the locally produced pottery.
The City Library Arts Centre, on Fawcett Street, housed the Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art until the just click for source was closed in January 2017.
The library service was relocated to the Museum and Winter Gardens and the Gallery for Contemporary Art transferred to Sunderland University.
The city possesses a number of public parks.
Several of these are historic, includingand.
In the early 2000s, was opened opposite.
The city's parks have secured several commendments on its commitment to preserving natural facilities, receiving the collective in 1993, 1997 this web page 2000.
The club, which currently plays in following consecutive relegations from the and theis based at the 49,000 seat capacitywhich was opened in 1997.
C also has the north-east's top women's football team,They currently play in the top tier of English women's football —.
Despite their financial struggles.
Sunderland were league champions six times within the first half century, but have not achieved this accolade since 1936.
Their other notable successes include glory in 1937 and 1973 and winning the title with a then record of 105 points in 1999.
Sunderland AFC's longest stadium occupancy so far was of for 99 years beginning in 1898, with relocation taking place due to the stadium's confined location and the need to build an all-seater stadium.
The initial relocation plan, announced in the early 1990s, had been for a stadium to be situated alongside the Nissan factory, but these were abandoned in favour of the Stadium of Light at on the site of a on the banks of the River Wear that had closed at the end of 1993.
The city also has two non-league sides, of the and Sunderland West End FC of thewho play at the Ford Quarry Complex.
Sunderland's amateur and clubs are both based in.
The Ashbrooke ground was opened on 30 May 1887.
View of the Stadium of Light from the opposite side of the River Wear.
The Crowtree Leisure Centre has also played host to a number of important boxing matches and snooker championships including the 2003 Sunderland casino boxing World Trickshot and Premier League Final.
In September 2005, TV cameras captured international boxing bouts featuring local boxersStuart Kennedy and.
The latter became Sunderland's first Olympic medallist when he won a in the light heavyweight boxing category for at the.
Constructed at a cost of £20 million, it is the only Olympic sized 50 m pool between and and has six diving boards, which stand at 1 m, 3 m and 5 m.
Athletics is also a popular sport in the city, with Sunderland Harriers Athletics Club based at Silksworth Sports Complex.
On 25 June 2006, the first Great Women's Run took place along Sunderland's coastline.
Among the field which lined up to start the race were Olympic silver medallists of the and ofwho eventually won the race.
The race quickly became an annual fixture in the city's sporting schedule, with races in 2007 and 2008.
In 2009, the race will be relaunched as the Run, allowing male competitors to take part for the first time, on 12 July.
The institution currently has over 17,000 students.
The university is split into two campuses; the City Campus site of the original Polytechnic is just to the west of the city centre, as is the main university library and the main administrative buildings.
The 'Award-Winning' St Peter's Riverside Campus is located on the north banks of the river Wear, next to the National Glass Centre and houses the School of Business, Law and Psychology, as well as Computing and Technology and The Media Centre.
The University of Sunderland was named the top university in England for providing the best student experience by THES in 2006.
Since 2001 Sunderland has been named the best new university in England by and Government performance indicators showed Sunderland as the best new university in England for the quality, range and quantity of its research.
It has over 14,000 students, and based on exam results is one of the most successful colleges.
St Peter's Sixth Form College, next to St Peter's Church and the University, opened in September 2008.
The college is a partnership between the three Sunderland North schools and City of Sunderland College.
There are eighteen in the Sunderland area, predominantly comprehensives.
According to exam results, the most successful wasa coeducational secondary school and sixth form in Washington.
However, comprehensive schools also thrive, notably the Roman Catholic single-sex schools for girls and for boys.
Both continue to attain high exam results.
There are seventy-six in Sunderland.
According to the 'Value Added' measure, the most successful is Mill Hill Primary School, in.
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Bardsley missed the final match of the season away at Tottenham Hotspur after he and Matthew Kilgallon were pictured visiting a casino, angering Di Canio who vowed never to play the pair again. Di Canio also fined Bardsley as well as six other Sunderland players for "indiscipline" which prompted an investigation by the PFA.


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On the north side of the river, was settled in 674 when granted land to to found.
In 685, Ecgfrith further granted Biscop the land adjacent to the monastery on the south side of the river.
As the river separated this land from the monastic community, it was henceforth referred to as the "sunder-land", and would grow as a fishing settlement before being granted a charter in 1179.
West of the medieval village of Sunderland on the south bank, was founded in 930.
Sunderland grew as a port, trading and.
Ships began to be built on the river in the 14th century.
By the 19th century, the port of Sunderland had absorbed Bishopwearmouth and Monkwearmouth, owing to the growing economic importance of the shipbuilding docks.
Following the decline of the city's traditional industries in the late 20th century, the area grew into a commercial centre for the automotive industry, science and technology and the service sector.
It therefore seems likely that he was born in or near Sunderland.
Indeed, Bede later wrote that he was "ácenned on sundorlande þæs ylcan mynstres" born in a separate land of this same monastery ; here, "sundorlande" translates literally as "separate land" but could refer to the village of Sunderland.
Alternatively, it is possible that Sunderland was later named in honour of Bede's connections to the area, by people familiar with this statement of his.
A person from Sunderland is sometimes known as a.
However, as this term originated as recently as the early 1980s, its use and acceptance by Sunderland residents, particularly among the older generations, is not universal.
At one time, Sunderland-built ships were called "Jamies", in contrast with those from Tyneside, which were known as "Geordies", although in the case of "Jamie" it is not known whether casino hinckley boxing results was ever extended to people.
Sunderland was created a of in 1835.
Under theit was given the status of a County Borough, independent from control.
In 1974, under thethe county borough was abolished and its area combined with that of other districts to form the Metropolitan Borough of Sunderland in Tyne and Wear.
In 1986, was abolished, and Sunderland became aonce again independent from county council control.
The metropolitan borough was granted after winning a competition in 1992 to celebrate the 40th year on the throne.
The population of the city taken at the 2011 Census was 275,506.
Historic map of County Durham.
Sunderland was part of until the local government changes in 1974.
The is seen here passing through the city ofbefore reaching the North Sea in Sunderland.
Although it is amany public services in the are provided in cooperation with neighbouring local authorities.
For instance, the covers the five now independent boroughs of Tyne and Wear, plus the neighbouring county of.
The covers the five boroughs only.
Since 2014, the has been a member of thewhich is an alliance of the five former boroughs of and the neighbouring counties of and.
However, Sunderland is still a unitary authority; are voluntary alliances, in which local authorities agree to pool certain responsibilities and receive delegated functions from central government.
For classes casino nsw, thebetter known by its brand name Nexus, is now an executive body of the.
This road was the route of the old A19, now it is the A1018.
Much of the city is located on a low range of hills running parallel to the coast.
On average, it is around 80 metres.
Sunderland is divided by the River Wear which passes through the middle of the city in a deeply incised valley, part of which is known as the Hylton gorge.
The three road bridges connecting the north and south portions of the city are the at Pallion, the just to the north of the city centre and most recently the between Castletown and Pallion.
To the west of the city, the carries the dual-carriageway over the Wear see map below.
Most of the suburbs of Sunderland are situated towards the west of the city centre with 70% of its population living on the south side of the river and 30% on the north side.
The city extends to the seafront at Hendon and Ryhope in the south and in the north.
In Millfield, the streets are all associated with plants, e.
Chester, Fern, Rose, Hyacinth etc.
The smaller Urban Subdivision follows the boundaries of what is considered the city itself, however, the USD alone has not been given city status.
The larger metropolitan borough contains other settlements with a separate identity such asbut has been given official city status, with all individual settlements sunderland casino boxing the responsibility of Sunderland city council.
In the Sunderland borough boundary, as well as the aforementioned areas, landscape features and facilities such as much of the River Don and Wear basins, the George Washington Hotel Golf and Spa complex, Sharpley Golf Course, Herrington Country Park, Houghton Quarry and Penshaw Hill are within the green belt area.
Its location in the of theas well as other mountain ranges to the west, such as those of the and southwestern Scotland, make Sunderland one of the least rainy cities of Northern England.
The climate is heavily moderated by the adjacentgiving it cool summers, and winters that are mild considering its latitude.
The closest weather station is inabout 8 miles 13 km north of Sunderland.
As a result, Sunderland's coastline is likely slightly milder given the more southerly position.
Another relatively nearby weather station in is having warmer summer days and colder winter nights courtesy of its inland position.
Climate data for Tynemouth, 1981—2010 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C °F 7.
According to statistics based on the 2001 census, 60% of homes in the Sunderland arewith an average household size of 2.
Three percent of the homes have no permanent residents.
The most ethnically diverse ward of the city was the now defunct Thornholme area which had a population of 10,214 in 2001.
This ward, which included Eden Vale, Thornhill, as well as parts of Hendon, Ashbrooke and the city centre, has long been the focus of Wearside's Bangladeshi community.
Nowadays the Barnes ward, which contains part of former Thornholme ward, has the highest percentage 5.
The 2001 census also recorded a substantial concentration of Greek nationals, living mainly in Central and Thornholme wards.
The least ethnically diverse wards are in the north of the city.
The area of is made up of 99.
The Sunderland USD had a population of 174,286 in 2011 compared with 275,506 for the wider city.
Both of these figures are a decrease compared with 2001 figures that showed the Sunderland USD had a population of 182,758 compared with 280,807 for the wider city.
In 2011, the Millfield ward, which contains the western half of the city centre, was the most ethnically diverse ward in Sunderland.
Millfield is a multiracial area with large Indian and Bangladeshi communities, being the centre of Wearside's Bangladeshi community along with neighbouring Barnes.
The ward's ethnicity was, in 2011, 76.
Other wards with high ethnic minority populations include Hendon, Barnes, St Michael's and St Peter's.
In 2011, the least ethnically diverse ward was the Northside suburb Redhill which was 99.
This ward has so few ethnic minorities that it can even be compared to rural wards in Cumbria and it also proves there is a lot of contrast between areas when it comes to ethnicity.
Here is a table comparing Sunderland and the wider City of Sunderland Metropolitan Borough as well as.
In the Sunderland Urban Subdivision, 6.
Sunderland is less ethnically diverse than andmainly because of many outlying suburbs to the south, north and west of the city such as St Chad's, and which have very high White British populations.
The Parliament constituency largely omits these areas.
However, in 2001, the Sunderland USD was 96.
It has been in the since the was restored in 1850.
The 2011 census recorded that 70.
Jewish heritage in the city, once part of a thriving community, can be dated back sunderland casino boxing around 1750, when a number of Jewish merchants from across the UK and Europe settled in Sunderland, eventually forming a congregation in 1768.
A from was established in the city in 1790.
After a rapid growth in numbers during the latter half of the nineteenth century, the Jewish community in Sunderland reached its height in the mid 1930s, when around 2,000 Jews were recorded to be living in the town.
The community has been in slow decline since the mid-20th century.
Many Sunderland Jews left for stronger Jewish communities in Britain or to Israel.
The Jewish primary school, the Menorah School, closed in July 1983.
The on Ryhope Road, opened in 1928, closed at the end of March 2006.
See also The Jewish population of the Sunderland Metropolitan Borough is continually diminishing, as the Jewish population fell from 114 people in 2001, to 76 people in 2011.
During his ministry at Monkwearmouth, Boddy was influenced by the and also by the British-born Norwegian preacher T.
In the early years of the 20th century All Saints, Monkwearmouth became an important centre for the development of the Pentecostal Movement in Britain.
In the mid-1980s, Sunderland's economic situation began to improve following the collapse of shipbuilding in the town.
Japanese car manufacturer opened the factory in 1986, and the first car was produced later that year.
The factory and its supplier companies remain the largest employers in the region, with current cars produced there including thethe and the electric.
As of 2012 over 500,000 cars are produced annually, and it is the UK's largest car factory.
Also in the late 1980s, new moved into sites such as the in the south west of the city, attracting national and international companies.
Sunderland was named in the shortlist of the top seven "intelligent cities" in the world for the use ofin 2004 and 2005.
The former shipyards along the Wear were transformed with a mixture of residential, commercial and leisure facilities including St.
Peter's Campus of the University of Sunderland, University accommodation along the Fish Quay on the South side of the river, the North Haven housing and marina development, thethe and Hylton Riverside Retail Park.
Also in 2007, the Echo 24 luxury apartments opened on Pann's Bank overlooking the river.
In 2008 the opened adjacent to the Stadium of Light, containing the only between and.
This was followed by adjacent redevelopments on Park Lane.
Sunderland Corporation's massive post-war housing estate developments atand have all passed into the ownership of previously 'Sunderland Housing Group'a private company and a.
In 2004, redevelopment work began in the Sunniside area in the east-end of the city centre, including aarestaurants, a and.
Originally the River Quarter, the site was renamed Limelight in 2005, and renamed in 2008, when it became Sunniside Leisure.
Sunniside Gardens were landscaped, and a number of new cafes, bars and restaurants were opened.
Up-market residential apartments were developed, including the Echo 24 building.
Sunderland City Council's Unitary Development Plan UDP outlines ambitious regeneration plans for a number of sites around the city.
The plans are supported byan urban regeneration company funded by the City council, and the.
Vaux and Farringdon Row Since the closure of the in 1999, a 26-acre 11-hectare has lain dormant in the centre of Sunderland.
The land is subject to dispute between supermarket chainwho bought the site in 2001, and Sunderland arc, who submitted plans for its redevelopment in 2002.
During formal negotiations, Tesco stated they would be willing to sell the land to arc, if an alternative city centre site could be found.
Possibilities include Holmeside Triangle, and the Sunderland Retail Park in Roker.
Arc hope to begin development in 2010.
Arc's plans for the site were approved by the Secretary of State in 2007, and include extensive office space,leisure and retail units, residential apartments and a new £50 m.
The central public arcade will be located under an expansive glass canopy.
It is hoped an "" can be encouraged which will complement the city's nightlife.
In 2013 in the area opposite the Vaux site, Sunderland City Council announced the project, a new public space designed to commemorate Sunderand's maritime heritage, which was completed in May 2015.
Construction commenced in 2014.
Stadium Village Redevelopment of the Monkwearmouth Colliery site, which sits on the north bank of the river Wear opposite the Vaux site, began in the mid-1990s with the creation of the.
In 2008, it was joined by the.
The Sheepfolds industrial estate occupies a large area of land between the Stadium and the.
Sunderland arc are in the process of purchasing land in the Sheepfolds, with a view to relocate the businesses and redevelop the site.
The emphasis of development plans include further sporting facilities, in order to create a Sports Village.
Other plans include a hotel, residential accommodation, and a linking the site with the Vaux development.
Grove and Transport Corridor The Sunderland Strategic Transport Corridor SSTC is a proposed transport link from the A19, through the city centre, to the port.
A major phase of the plan is the creation of awhich will link the Wessington Way on the north of the river with the Grove site in Pallion, on the south of the river.
In 2008, Sunderland City Council offered the residents of Sunderland the opportunity to vote on the design of the bridge.
The choices were a 180-metre 590 ft iconicwhich would result in a temporary increase inor a simple which would be within the council's budget.
The results of the consulatation were inconclusive, with residents keen to have an iconic bridge, but reluctant to have a subsequent increase in tax to fund it.
Regardless of the ultimate design of the new bridge, the landing point will be the former Grove Cranes site in.
Plans for this site focus around the creation of a new residential area, with homes, community buildings, commercial and retail space.
The Port The Port of Sunderland, owned by the city council, has been earmarked for medium-term redevelopment with a focus on mixed-use industry.
Once hailed as the "Largest Shipbuilding Town in the World", ships were built on the Wear from at least 1346 onwards and by the mid-18th century Sunderland was one of the chief shipbuilding towns in the country.
The Port of Sunderland was significantly expanded in the 1850s with the construction of Hudson Dock to designs by River Wear Commissioner's Engineer John Murray, with consultancy by.
One famous vessel was thethe clipper in which sailed, and on which he began his first novel.
She was one of the most famous ships of her time and can claim to be the finest ship ever launched from a Sunderland yard.
Competition from overseas caused a downturn in demand for Sunderland built ships toward the end of the 20th century.
The last shipyard in Sunderland closed on 7 December 1988.
Sunderland, part of the Durham coalfield, has a coal-mining heritage that dates back centuries.
At its peak in 1923, 170,000 miners were employed in County Durham alone, as labourers from all over Britain, including many from Scotland and Ireland, entered the region.
As demand for coal slipped following World War II, mines began to close across the region, causing mass unemployment.
The last coal mine closed in 1994.
The site of the last coal mine, Wearmouth Colliery, is now occupied by theand a miner's monument stands outside of the ground to honour the site's mining heritage.
Documentation relating to the region's coalmining heritage are stored at the NEEMARC.
As with the coal-mining and shipbuilding, overseas competition has forced the closure of all of Sunderland's glass-making factories.
However, there has been a modest rejuvenation with the opening of the which, amongst other things, provides international glass makers with working facilities and a shop to showcase their work, predominantly in the artistic rather than functional field.
Vaux Breweries was established in the town centre in the 1880s and for 110 years was a major employer.
Following a series of consolidations in the Britishhowever, the brewery was finally closed in July 1999.
Vaux in Sunderland and in had been part of the Vaux Group, but with the closure of both breweries it was re-branded The Swallow Group, concentrating on the hotel side of the business.
This was subject to a successful take-over by in the autumn of 2000.
In 1855, opened a bottleworks, producing glass bottles, with 6 sites at nearby and at Diamond Hall, Sunderland.
In May 2002 the was extended to Sunderland in an official ceremony attended by The Queen, twenty-two years after it originally opened in Newcastle upon Tyne.
The line now stretches deeper into and into Sunderland, incorporating,as well as and stations at the and both campuses of the before terminating at.
The trains run every 12—15 minutes and call at all stations.
All-zones Metro tickets cost £5 for a daily and £21 for a weekly, as of August 2017.
In March 2014 Metro owner Nexus proposed an extension of the network by the creation of an "on-street" tram link which would connect the city centre to to the north and Doxford Park to the west.
It is situated on an underground level.
It was renovated in 2005, backed by the artistic team which designed the stations along the Wearside extension of the in 2002.
It is situated on the served by direct services to Newcastle,andas well as further afield toand the Gateshead.
These services run hourly in each direction, cut from half-hourly on 12 December 2005.
From 1998 to 2004, Northern Spirit and subsequently ran bihourly direct trains from Sunderland to via, regret, casino lock box apologise, and.
The services were withdrawn due to a change of franchise which saw the route gain a franchise in its own right, distinct from the Regional Railways network which Arriva had inherited.
Services now terminate at Newcastle, and a separate service also travels to Middlesbrough, but both only stretch as far as.
In 2006, announced plans to operate a direct service between Sunderland and viaa service which had been stripped from Wearside twenty years earlier.
A scaled-down service of one train each day began in December 2007, twelve months after the initial launch date, due to delays caused by restoring rolling stock and a protracted court case against which Grand Central won.
The service increased to three departures daily each way on 1 March 2008, connecting a line which can run from Edinburgh to London.
The service has proved so popular that daily fourth and fifth direct trains are now in operation.
When were announced as the winners of the franchise in November 2014 their plans included a daily service from Sunderland to London Kings Cross that commenced in December 2015.
Peter's Metro Station,and.
Sunderland is on the green line of the Tyne and Wear Metro and trains run every 12 minutes on Monday to Staturday daytimes and every 15 minutes on evenings and Sundays.
The fastest, largest and busiest road is thewhich is a running north-to-south along the western edge of the urban area, crossing the River Wear at Hylton, and providing access north to thejoining up with the to Edinburgh, and south throughjoining up with the via the atproviding an entirely connection between Sunderland and the.
The A19 originally ran through Sunderland city centre until the bypass was built in the 1970s; this route is now the A1018.
There are four main roads which support the city centre.
The Durham Road terminates in the city centre, and runs to via the city of Durham.
The starts in the city centre, crosses the Queen Alexandra Bridge and runs through Washington to the.
Most of this road is.
The A1018 follows a direct route from Shields to Sunderland, the A183 follows the coast.
After crossing the bridge, the A1018 follows games free online pandora box relatively straight path to the south of Sunderland where it merges with the A19.
The A183 becomes Chester Road and heads west out of the city to the A1 at.
This is a bypass of the A1018 through Grangetown and Ryhope — a stretch that commonly suffered fromespecially during.
The bypass starts just south of Ryhope, and runs parallel to the cliff tops into Hendon, largely avoiding residential areas.
The scheme will improve transport links around the city ensuring continuous dual carriageway between the A19 road and the port of Sunderland.
The scheme also includes the building of a new wear bridge between Pallion on the south embankment and Castletown to the north.
With 750,000 passengers per year it is the busiest bus and coach station in Britain after inand has won several awards for innovative design.
The majority of bus services in Sunderland are provided by andwith a handful of services provided by.
Besides these, there are also inter state and inter city route buses mainly operated by and.
A new Metro station was built underneath the bus concourse to provide a direct interchange as part of the extension to South Hylton in 2002.
The National Route 1 runs from Ryhope in the south, through the centre of the city, and then along the coast towards South Shields.
Britain's most popular long-distance — The 'C2C' — traditionally starts or ends when the cyclist dips their wheel in the sea on Roker beach.
The '' 'Wear-to-' route, and the 'Two-Rivers' Tyne and Wear route also terminate in Sunderland.
The port offers a total of 17 quays handling cargoes including forest products, non-ferrous metals, steel, aggregates and refined oil products, limestone, chemicals and maritime cranes.
It also handles offshore supply vessels and has ship repair and facilities.
The river berths are deepwater andwhile the South Docks are entered via a lock with an 18.
He wrote most of at as well as "".
Some parts of the area are also widely believed to be the inspiration for his Alice in Wonderland stories, such as Hylton Castle and Backhouse Park.
There is a statue to Carroll in Whitburn library.
Lewis Carroll was also a visitor to the Rectory of Holy Trinity Church, Southwick; then a township independent of Sunderland.
Carroll's connection with Sunderland, and the area's history, is documented in 's 2007 graphic novel.
More recently, Sunderland-bornwriter of the series of books, has achieved fame and success, and many others such as thriller writerare following his lead.
The Salford-born painter was a frequent visitor, staying in the Seaburn Hotel in Sunderland.
Many of his paintings of seascapes and shipbuilding are based on Wearside scenes.
The on Fawcett Street and showcase exhibitions and installations from up-and-coming and established artists alike, with the latter holding an extensive collection of Lowry.
The National Glass Centre on Liberty Way also exhibits a number of glass sculptures.
In recent years, the scene in Sunderland has helped promote the likes of, and.
Other Mackem musicians include punk rockers "Nellie the Elephant", December 1984oi!
In May 2005, Sunderland played host to 's sunderland casino boxing atattended by 30,000 visitors and which featured,and.
The Sunderlandhome tois recognised internationally as a major stadium concert venue.
Headlining acts have included;,,, and.
The Empire Theatre sometimes plays host to music acts.
The Manor Quay' the students' union nightclub on St.
Peter's Riverside at thehas also hosted the,and.
In 2009, the club was taken into private ownership under the name Campus and hosted,and but has since been returned to the university.
Since 2009, Sunderland: Live in the City has played host to a series of free and ticketed live music events throughout venues in the city centre.
Initially only intended to remain open for a fortnight, the store remains open and has hosted live performances from acts includingand.
Operated by international entertainment groupthe Empire is the only theatre between and with sufficient capacity to accommodate large productions.
It is infamous for playing host to the final performance of British comic actor who died of a heart attack whilst on stage in 1976.
The Royalty Theatre on is the home to the amateur Royalty Theatre Group who also put on a number of low-budget productions throughout the year.
Film producer belonged to this company before achieving worldwide fame and is now a patron of the theatre.
The area plays host to a number of smaller theatrical workshops and production houses, as regina casino office hours as the Theatre Restaurant, which combines a dining experience with a rolling programme of musical theatre.
It also has its own commercial station formerly an independent station it's now owned by media gianta "proper" community radio station and a hospital radio station —and can receive other north-eastern independent radio stations, and.
The current regional BBC radio station is.
The regional DAB multiplex for the Sunderland area is operated by Bauer DIGITAL RADIO LTD.
Sunderland's first film company was established in 2008; and is known as "Tanner Films Ltd" and is based in the area of the city.
The companies first film, "King of the North" starring and set in the area of the city; is currently under production.
The Mackem click at this page has much of its origins in the language spoken by the population.
Although the accent has so much in common with the more popularthe dialect spoken in Sunderland is quite distinctive from the dialect spoken in Newcastle.
Only the porch and part of the west wall are what remain of the original monastery built in 674.
Main article: The earliest inhabitants of the Sunderland area were and artifacts from this era have been discovered, including found during excavations at.
During the final phase of the Stone Age, the c.
Evidence includes the former presence of a monument.
It is believed the inhabited the area around the in the pre- and post- era.
There is a long-standing local legend that there was a Roman settlement on the south bank of the River Wear on what is the site of the former Vaux Brewery, although no archaeological investigation has taken place.
Recorded settlements at the mouth of the Wear date to 674, when an nobleman, Benedict Biscop, granted land by Kingfounded the Wearmouth—Jarrow St.
Peter's on the north bank of the river — an area that became known as Monkwearmouth.
Biscop's monastery was the first built of stone in.
He employed glaziers from and in doing so he re-established in Britain.
In 686 the community was taken over byand Wearmouth—Jarrow became a major centre of learning and knowledge in with a library of around 300 volumes.
Thedescribed by White https://gsdonline.ru/box/box-car-bonus-slot-machine.html the 'finest book in the world', was created at the monastery and was likely worked on bywho was born at Wearmouth in 673.
This is one of the oldest monasteries still standing in England.
While at the monastery, Bede completed the The Ecclesiastical History of the English People in 731, a feat which earned him the title The father of English history.
In the late 8th century, the raided the coast, and by the middle of the 9th century, the monastery had been abandoned.
Lands on the south side of the river were granted to the by in 930; these became known as Bishopwearmouth and included settlements such as which fall within the modern boundary of Sunderland.
In 1100, Bishopwearmouth parish included a village at the southern mouth link the river now the East End known as 'Soender-land' which evolved into 'Sunderland'.
This settlement was granted a in 1179 bythen the.
From 1346 at Wearmouth, by a merchant named Thomas Menville.
In 1589, salt was made in Sunderland.
Large vats of were heated using coal.
As the water evaporated the salt remained.
This process, known asgave its name to ; the modern-day name of the area the pans occupied is Pann's Bank, on the river bank between the city centre and the East End.
As coal was required to heat thea community began to emerge.
Only poor quality coal was used in salt panning; quality coal was traded via the port, which subsequently began to grow.
In 1644 the North was captured by parliament.
The villages that later become Sunderland, were taken in March 1644.
One artifact of the English civil war near this area was the long trench; a tactic of later warfare.
In the village ofroughly three miles in land from the area, skirmishes occurred.
Parliament also blockaded thecrippling the Newcastle coal trade which allowed the coal trade of the area to flourish for a short period.
Because of the difficulty for colliers trying to navigate the shallow waters of the Wear, the coal was loaded onto keels large boats and taken downriver to the waiting colliers.
The keels were manned by a close-knit group of workers known as ''.
In 1719, the parish of Sunderland was carved from the densely populated east end of Bishopwearmouth by the establishment of a new parish church, today also known as Sunderland Old Parish Church.
The three original settlements Wearmouth Bishopwearmouth, Monkwearmouth and Sunderland had begun to combine, driven by the success of the port of Sunderland and salt panning and shipbuilding along the banks of the river.
Around this time, Sunderland was known as 'Sunderland-near-the-Sea'.
In 1794 were completed and in 1796 the world's second iron bridge was constructed in the city.
Sunderland, a main trading port at the time, was the first British town to be struck with the 'Indian cholera' epidemic.
The first victim, William Sproat, died on 23 October 1831.
Sunderland was put into quarantine, and the port was blockaded, but in December of that year the disease spread to and from there, it rapidly made its way across the country, killing an estimated 32,000 people.
Among those to die was Sunderland's Naval hero.
The novel The Dress Lodger by American author is set in Sunderland during the epidemic.
Demands for and organised town government saw the Borough of Sunderland created in 1835.
Sunderland developed on a plateau above the river, and never suffered from the problem of allowing people to cross the river without interrupting the passage of high masted vessels.
The was built in 1796, at the instigation ofthe forand is described by as being of superb elegance.
At the time of building, it was the biggest single-span bridge in the money box with coin slot />Further up river, the was built in 1909, linking and.
In 1897, Monkwearmouth became a part of Sunderland.
Bishopwearmouth had long since been absorbed.
The hall was the scene of a on 16 June 1883 when 183 children died.
During achildren rushed towards a staircase for treats.
At the bottom of the staircase, the door had been opened inward and bolted in such a way as to leave only a gap wide enough for one child to pass at a time.
The children surged down the stairs and those at the front were trapped and crushed by the weight of the crowd behind them.
The of 183 children aged between three and 14 is the worst disaster of its kind in British history.
The memorial, a grieving mother holding a dead child, is located in Mowbray Park inside a protective canopy.
Newspaper reports triggered a mood of national outrage and an inquiry recommended that public venues be fitted with a minimum number of outward openingwhich led to the invention of 'push bar' emergency doors.
This law remains in force.
Victoria Hall remained in use until 1941 when it was destroyed by a bomb.
The public transport network was enhanced in 1900 - 1919 with an.
The trams were gradually replaced by buses during the 1940s before being completely axed in 1954.
The First World War led to a notable increase in shipbuilding but also resulted in the town being targeted by a raid in 1916.
The Monkwearmouth area was struck on 1 April 1916 and 22 lives were lost.
Many citizens also served in the armed forces during this period, over 25,000 men from a population of 151,000.
Sunderland viewed from above in 1967 With the outbreak of in 1939, Sunderland was a key target of thewho claimed the lives of 267 people in the town, caused damage or destruction to 4,000 homes, and devastated local industry.
After the war, more housing was developed.
The town's boundaries expanded in 1967 when neighbouring,and were incorporated into Sunderland.
During the second half of the 20th century shipbuilding and coalmining declined; shipbuilding ended in 1988 and coalmining in 1993.
At the worst of the unemployment crisis up to 20% of the local workforce were unemployed in the mid-1980s.
Some new industries developed in the area at this time, and the service sector expanded during the 1980s and 1990s.
In 1986 Japanese car manufacturer opened its factory in Washington, which has since gone on to become the UK's largest car factory.
Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK Ltd in Sunderland.
Factory complex, including wind turbines, taken continue reading Penshaw Monument From 1990, the banks of the Wear were regenerated with the creation of housing, retail parks and business centres on former shipbuilding sites.
Alongside the creation of the the has built a new campus on the.
The clearance of the site on the north west fringe of the city centre created a further opportunity for development in the city centre.
Sunderland received city status in 1992.
The 20th century saw established as the Wearside area's greatest claim to sporting fame.
Founded in 1879 as Sunderland and District Teachers A.
By 1936 the club had been league champions on five occasions.
They won their first inbut their only post- major honour came in 1973 when they won a.
They have had a checkered history and dropped into the old third division for a season and been relegated thrice from thetwice with the lowest points ever, earning the club a reputation as a.
After 99 years at the historic stadium, the club moved to the 42,000-seat on the banks of the River Wear in 1997.
At the time, it was the largest stadium built by an English football club since the 1920s, and has since been expanded to hold nearly 50,000 seated spectators.
Like many cities, Sunderland comprises a number of areas with their own distinct histories,Monkwearmouth,and on the northern side of the Wear, and Bishopwearmouth and Hendon to the south.
Many fine old buildings remain despite the bombing that occurred during World War II.
Religious buildings include Holy Trinity Church, built in 1719 for an independent Sunderland, St.
Michael's Church, built as Bishopwearmouth Parish Church and now known as Sunderland Minster and St.
Peter's Church, Monkwearmouth, part of which dates from AD 674, and was the original monastery.
Andrew's Roker, known as the "Cathedral of the ", contains work byand.
On 24 March 2004, the city adopted St.
Benedict Biscop as its.
It takes place primarily along the sea front at Roker and Seaburn, Sunderland also hosts the free International Festival of Kites, Music and Dance, which attracts kite-makers from around the world to Northumbria Playing Fields, Washington.
Every year the city hosts a large memorial service, the largest in the UK outside in 2006.
Sunderland's inaugural film festival took place in December 2003 at the Bonded Warehouse on Sunderland riverside, in spite of the lack of any cinema facilities in the city at that time, featuring the films of local and aspiring directors as well as reshowings of acclaimed works, such as 'saccompanied by analysis.
By the time of the second festival commencing on 21 January 2005, a new cinema multiplex had opened in Sunderland to provide a venue which allowed the festival to showcase over twenty films.
The National Glass Centre opened in 1998, reflecting Sunderland's distinguished history of glass-making.
Despite sustained support from the the centre has struggled to meet visitor targets since it opened.
Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens, on Borough Road, was the first municipally funded museum in the country outside London.
It houses a comprehensive collection of the locally produced pottery.
The City Library Arts Centre, on Fawcett Street, housed please click for source Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art until the library was closed in January 2017.
The library service was relocated to the Museum and Winter Gardens and the Gallery for Contemporary Art transferred to Sunderland University.
The city possesses a number of public parks.
Several of these are historic, includingand.
In the early 2000s, was opened opposite.
The city's parks have secured several commendments on its commitment to preserving natural facilities, receiving the collective in 1993, 1997 and 2000.
The club, which currently plays in following consecutive relegations from the and theis based at the 49,000 seat capacitywhich was opened in 1997.
C also has the north-east's top women's football team,They currently play in the top tier of English women's football —.
Despite their financial struggles.
Sunderland were league champions six times within the first half century, but have not achieved this accolade since 1936.
Their other notable successes include glory in 1937 and 1973 and winning the title with a then record of 105 points in 1999.
Sunderland AFC's longest stadium occupancy so far was of for 99 years beginning in 1898, with relocation taking place due to the stadium's confined location and the need to build an all-seater stadium.
The initial relocation plan, announced in the early 1990s, had been for a stadium to be situated alongside the Nissan factory, but these were abandoned in favour of the Stadium of Light at on the site of a on the banks of the River Wear that had closed at the end of 1993.
The city also has two non-league sides, of the and Sunderland West End FC of thewho play at the Ford Quarry Complex.
Sunderland's amateur and clubs are both based in.
The Ashbrooke ground was opened on 30 May 1887.
View of the Stadium of Light from the opposite side of the River Wear.
The Crowtree Leisure Centre has also played host to a number of important boxing matches and snooker championships including the 2003 Snooker World Https://gsdonline.ru/box/magic-box-game-android-reviews.html and Premier League Final.
In September 2005, TV cameras captured international boxing bouts featuring local boxersStuart Kennedy and.
The latter became Sunderland's first Olympic medallist when he won a in the light heavyweight boxing category for at the.
Constructed at a cost of £20 million, it is the only Olympic sized 50 m pool between and and has six diving boards, which stand at 1 m, 3 m and 5 m.
Athletics is also a popular sport in the city, with Sunderland Harriers Athletics Club based at Silksworth Sports Complex.
On 25 June 2006, the first Great Women's Run took place along Sunderland's coastline.
Among the field which lined up to start the race were Olympic silver medallists of the and ofwho eventually won the race.
The race quickly became an annual fixture in the city's sporting schedule, with races in 2007 and 2008.
In 2009, the race will be relaunched as the Run, allowing male competitors to take part for the first time, on 12 July.
The institution currently has over 17,000 students.
The university is split into two campuses; the City Campus site of the original Polytechnic is just to the west of the city centre, as is the main university library and the main administrative buildings.
The 'Award-Winning' St Peter's Riverside Sunderland casino boxing is located on the north banks of the river Wear, next to the Boxes ps4 overwatch loot free Glass Centre and houses the School of Business, Law and Psychology, as well as Computing and Technology and The Media Centre.
The University of Sunderland was named the top university in England for providing the best student experience by THES in 2006.
Since 2001 Sunderland has been named the best new university in England by and Government performance indicators showed Sunderland as the best new university in England for the quality, range and quantity of its research.
It has over 14,000 students, and based on exam results is one of the most successful colleges.
St Peter's Sixth Form College, next to St Peter's Church and the University, opened in September 2008.
The college is a partnership between the three Sunderland North schools and City of Sunderland College.
There are eighteen in the Sunderland area, predominantly comprehensives.
According to exam results, the most successful wasa coeducational secondary school and sixth form in Washington.
However, comprehensive schools also thrive, notably the Roman Catholic single-sex schools for girls and for boys.
Both continue to attain high exam results.
There are seventy-six in Sunderland.
According to the 'Value Added' measure, the most successful is Mill Hill Primary School, in.
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On the north side of the river, was settled in 674 when granted land to to found.
In 685, Ecgfrith further granted Biscop the land adjacent to the monastery on the south side of the river.
As the river separated this land from the monastic community, it was henceforth referred to as the "sunder-land", and would https://gsdonline.ru/box/box-car-bonus-slot-machine.html as a fishing settlement before being granted a charter in 1179.
West of the medieval village of Sunderland on the south bank, was founded in 930.
Sunderland grew as a port, trading and.
Ships began to be built on the river in the 14th century.
By the 19th century, the port of Sunderland had absorbed Bishopwearmouth and Monkwearmouth, owing to the growing economic importance of the shipbuilding docks.
Following the decline of the city's traditional industries in the late 20th century, the area grew into a commercial centre for the automotive industry, science and technology and the service sector.
It therefore seems likely that he was born in or near Sunderland.
Indeed, Bede later wrote that he was "ácenned on sundorlande þæs ylcan mynstres" born in a separate land of this same monastery ; here, "sundorlande" translates literally as "separate land" but could refer to the village of Sunderland.
Alternatively, it is possible that Sunderland was later named in honour of Bede's connections to the area, by people familiar with this statement of his.
A person from Sunderland is sometimes known as a.
However, as this term originated as recently as the early 1980s, its use and acceptance by Sunderland residents, particularly among the older generations, is not universal.
At one time, Sunderland-built ships were called "Jamies", in contrast with those from Tyneside, which were known as "Geordies", although in the case of "Jamie" it is not known whether this was ever extended to people.
Sunderland was created a of in 1835.
Under theit was given the status of a County Borough, independent from control.
In 1974, under thethe county borough was abolished and its area combined with that of other districts to form the Metropolitan Borough of Sunderland in Tyne and Wear.
In 1986, was abolished, and Sunderland became aonce again independent from county council control.
The metropolitan borough was granted after winning a competition in 1992 to celebrate the 40th year on the throne.
The population of the city taken at the 2011 Census was 275,506.
Historic map of County Durham.
Sunderland was part of until the local government changes in 1974.
The is seen here passing through the city ofbefore reaching the North Sea in Sunderland.
Although it is amany public services in the are provided in cooperation with neighbouring local authorities.
For instance, the covers the five now independent boroughs of Tyne and Wear, plus the neighbouring county of.
The covers the five boroughs sunderland casino boxing />Since 2014, the has been a member of thewhich is an alliance of the five former boroughs of and the neighbouring counties of and.
However, Sunderland is still a unitary authority; are voluntary alliances, in which local authorities agree to pool certain responsibilities and receive delegated functions from central government.
For instance, thebetter known by its brand name Nexus, is now an executive body of the.
This road was the route of the old A19, now it is the A1018.
Much of the city is located on a low range of hills running parallel to the coast.
On average, it is around 80 metres.
Sunderland is divided by the River Wear which passes through the middle of the city in a deeply incised valley, part of which is known as the Hylton gorge.
The three road bridges connecting the north and south portions of the city are the at Pallion, the just to the north of the city centre and most recently the between Castletown and Pallion.
To the west of the city, the carries the dual-carriageway over the Wear see map below.
Most of the suburbs of Sunderland are situated towards the west of the city centre with 70% of its population living on the south side of the river and 30% on the north side.
The city extends to the seafront at Hendon and Ryhope in the south and in the north.
In Millfield, the streets are all associated with plants, e.
Chester, Fern, Rose, Hyacinth etc.
The smaller Urban Subdivision follows the boundaries of what is considered the city itself, however, the USD alone has not been given city status.
The larger metropolitan borough contains other settlements with a separate identity such asbut has been given official city status, with all individual settlements being the responsibility of Sunderland city council.
In the Sunderland borough boundary, as well as the aforementioned areas, landscape features and facilities such as much of the River Don and Wear basins, the George Washington Hotel Golf and Spa complex, Sharpley Golf Course, Herrington Country Park, Houghton Quarry and Penshaw Hill are within the green belt area.
Its location in the of theas well as other mountain ranges to the west, such as those of the and southwestern Scotland, make Sunderland one of the least rainy cities of Northern England.
The climate is heavily moderated by the adjacentgiving it cool summers, and winters that are mild considering its latitude.
The closest weather station is inabout 8 miles 13 km north of Sunderland.
As a result, Sunderland's coastline is likely slightly milder given the more southerly position.
Another relatively nearby weather station in is having warmer summer days and colder winter nights courtesy of its inland position.
Climate data for Tynemouth, 1981—2010 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C °F 7.
According to statistics based on the 2001 census, 60% of homes in the Sunderland arewith an average household size of 2.
Three percent of the homes have no permanent residents.
The most ethnically diverse ward of the city was the now defunct Thornholme area which had a population of 10,214 in 2001.
This ward, which included Eden Vale, Thornhill, as well as parts of Hendon, Ashbrooke and the city centre, has long been the focus of Wearside's Bangladeshi community.
Nowadays the Barnes ward, which contains part of former Thornholme ward, has the highest percentage 5.
The 2001 census also recorded a substantial concentration of Greek nationals, living mainly in Central and Thornholme wards.
The least ethnically diverse wards are in the north of the city.
The area of is made up of 99.
The Sunderland USD had a population of 174,286 in 2011 compared with 275,506 for the wider city.
Both of these figures are a decrease compared with 2001 figures that showed the Sunderland USD had a population of 182,758 compared with 280,807 for the wider city.
In 2011, the Millfield ward, which contains the western half of the city centre, was the most ethnically diverse ward in Sunderland.
Millfield is a multiracial area with large Indian and Bangladeshi communities, being the centre of Wearside's Bangladeshi community along with neighbouring Barnes.
The ward's ethnicity was, in 2011, 76.
Other wards with high ethnic minority populations include Hendon, Barnes, St Michael's and St Peter's.
In 2011, the least ethnically diverse ward was the Northside suburb Redhill which was 99.
This ward has so few ethnic minorities that it can even be compared to rural wards in Cumbria and it also proves there is a lot of contrast between areas when it comes to ethnicity.
Here is a table comparing Sunderland and the wider City of Sunderland Metropolitan Borough as well as.
In the Sunderland Urban Subdivision, 6.
Sunderland is less ethnically diverse than andmainly because of many outlying suburbs to the south, north and west of the city such as St Chad's, and which have very high White British populations.
The Parliament constituency largely omits these areas.
However, in 2001, the Sunderland USD was 96.
It has been in the since the was restored in 1850.
The 2011 census recorded that 70.
Jewish heritage in the city, once part of a thriving community, can be dated back to around 1750, when a number of Jewish merchants from across the UK and Europe settled in Sunderland, eventually forming a congregation in 1768.
check this out from was established in the city in 1790.
After a rapid growth in numbers during the latter click the following article of the nineteenth century, the Jewish community in Sunderland reached its height in the mid 1930s, when around 2,000 Jews were recorded to pandoras free online play living in the town.
The community has been in slow decline since the mid-20th century.
Many Sunderland Jews left for stronger Jewish communities in Britain or to Israel.
The Jewish primary school, the Menorah School, closed in July 1983.
The on Ryhope Road, opened in 1928, closed at the end of March 2006.
See also The Jewish population of the Sunderland Metropolitan Borough is continually diminishing, as the Jewish population fell from 114 people in 2001, to 76 people in 2011.
During his ministry at Monkwearmouth, Boddy was influenced by the and also by the British-born Norwegian preacher T.
In the early years of the 20th century All Saints, Monkwearmouth became an important centre for the development of the Pentecostal Movement in Britain.
In the mid-1980s, Sunderland's economic situation began to improve following the collapse of shipbuilding in the town.
Japanese car manufacturer opened the factory in 1986, and the first car was produced later that year.
The factory and its supplier companies remain the largest employers in the region, with current cars produced there including thethe and the electric.
As of 2012 over 500,000 cars are produced annually, and it is the UK's largest car factory.
Also in the late 1980s, new moved into sites such as the in the south west of the city, attracting national and international companies.
Sunderland was named in the shortlist of the top seven "intelligent cities" in the world for the use ofin 2004 and 2005.
The former shipyards along the Wear were transformed with a mixture of residential, commercial and leisure facilities including St.
Peter's Campus of the University of Sunderland, University accommodation along the Fish Quay on the South side of the river, the North Haven housing and marina development, thethe and Hylton Riverside Retail Park.
Also in 2007, the Echo 24 luxury apartments opened on Pann's Bank overlooking the river.
In 2008 the opened adjacent to the Stadium of Light, containing the only between and.
This was followed by adjacent redevelopments on Park Lane.
Sunderland Corporation's massive post-war housing estate developments atand have all passed into the ownership of previously 'Sunderland Housing Group'a private company and a.
In 2004, redevelopment work began in the Sunniside area in the east-end of the city centre, including aarestaurants, a and.
Originally the River Quarter, the site was renamed Limelight in 2005, and renamed in 2008, when it became Sunniside Leisure.
Sunniside Gardens were landscaped, and a number of new cafes, bars and restaurants were opened.
Up-market residential apartments were developed, including the Echo 24 building.
Sunderland City Council's Unitary Development Plan UDP outlines ambitious regeneration plans for a number of sites around the city.
The plans are supported byan urban regeneration company funded by the City council, and the.
Vaux and Farringdon Row Since the closure of the in 1999, a 26-acre 11-hectare has sunderland casino boxing dormant in the centre of Sunderland.
The land is subject to dispute between supermarket chainwho bought the site in 2001, and Sunderland arc, who submitted plans for its redevelopment in 2002.
During formal negotiations, Tesco stated they would be willing to sell the land to arc, if an alternative city centre site could be found.
Possibilities include Holmeside Triangle, and the Sunderland Retail Park in Roker.
Arc hope to begin development in 2010.
Arc's plans for the site were approved by the Secretary of State in 2007, and include extensive office space,leisure and retail units, residential apartments and a new £50 m.
The central public arcade will be located under an expansive glass canopy.
It is hoped an "" can be encouraged which will complement the city's nightlife.
In 2013 in the area opposite the Vaux site, Sunderland City Council announced the project, a new public space designed to commemorate Sunderand's maritime heritage, which was completed in May 2015.
Construction commenced in 2014.
Stadium Village Redevelopment of the Monkwearmouth Colliery site, which sits on the north bank of the river Wear opposite the Vaux site, began in the mid-1990s with the creation of the.
In 2008, it was joined by the.
The Sheepfolds industrial estate occupies a large area of land between the Stadium and the.
Sunderland arc are in the process of purchasing land in the Sheepfolds, with a view to relocate the businesses and redevelop the site.
The emphasis of development plans include further sporting facilities, in order to create a Sports Village.
Other plans include a hotel, residential accommodation, and a linking the site with the Vaux development.
Grove and Transport Corridor The Sunderland Strategic Transport Corridor SSTC is a proposed transport link from the A19, through the city centre, to the port.
A major phase of the plan is the creation of awhich will link the Wessington Way on the north of the river with the Grove site in Pallion, on the south of the river.
In 2008, Sunderland City Council offered the residents of Sunderland the opportunity to vote on the design of the bridge.
The choices were a 180-metre 590 ft iconicwhich would result in a temporary increase inor a simple which would be within the council's budget.
The results of the consulatation were inconclusive, with residents keen to have an iconic bridge, but reluctant to have a subsequent increase in tax to fund it.
Regardless of the ultimate design of the new bridge, the landing point will be the former Grove Cranes site in.
Plans for this site focus around the creation of a new residential area, with homes, community buildings, commercial and retail space.
The Port The Port of Sunderland, owned by the city council, has been earmarked for medium-term redevelopment with a focus on mixed-use industry.
Once hailed as the "Largest Shipbuilding Town in the World", ships were built on the Wear from at least 1346 onwards and by the mid-18th century Sunderland was one of the chief shipbuilding towns in the country.
The Port of Sunderland was significantly expanded in the 1850s with the construction of Hudson Dock to designs by River Wear Commissioner's Engineer John Murray, with consultancy by.
One famous vessel was thethe clipper in which sailed, and on which he began his first novel.
She was one of the most famous ships of her time and can claim to be the finest ship ever launched from a Sunderland yard.
Competition from overseas caused a downturn in demand for Sunderland built ships toward the end of the 20th century.
The last shipyard in Sunderland closed on 7 December 1988.
Sunderland, part of the Durham coalfield, has a coal-mining heritage that dates back centuries.
At its peak in 1923, 170,000 miners were employed in County Durham alone, as labourers from all over Https://gsdonline.ru/box/boxing-classes-casino-nsw.html, including many from Scotland and Ireland, entered the region.
As demand for coal slipped following World War II, mines began to close across the region, causing mass unemployment.
The last coal mine closed in 1994.
The site of the last coal mine, Wearmouth Colliery, is now occupied by theand a miner's monument stands outside of the ground to sunderland casino boxing the site's mining heritage.
Documentation relating to the region's coalmining heritage are stored at the NEEMARC.
As with the coal-mining and shipbuilding, overseas competition has forced the closure of all of Sunderland's glass-making factories.
However, there has been a modest rejuvenation with the opening of the which, amongst other things, provides international glass makers with working facilities and a shop to showcase their work, predominantly in the artistic rather than functional field.
Vaux Breweries was established in the town centre in the 1880s and for 110 years was a major employer.
Following a series of consolidations in the Britishhowever, the brewery was finally closed in July 1999.
Vaux in Sunderland and in had been part of the Vaux Group, but with the closure of both breweries it was re-branded The Swallow Group, concentrating on the hotel side of the business.
This was subject to a successful take-over by in the autumn of 2000.
In 1855, opened a bottleworks, producing glass bottles, with 6 sites at nearby and at Diamond Hall, Sunderland.
In May 2002 the was extended to Sunderland in an official ceremony attended by The Queen, twenty-two years after it originally opened in Newcastle upon Tyne.
The line now stretches deeper into and into Sunderland, incorporating,as well as and stations at the and both campuses of the before terminating at.
The trains run every 12—15 minutes and call at all stations.
All-zones Metro tickets cost £5 for a daily and £21 for a weekly, as of August 2017.
In March 2014 Metro owner Nexus proposed an extension of the network by the creation of an "on-street" tram link which would connect the city centre to to the north and Doxford Park to the west.
It is situated on an underground level.
It was renovated in 2005, backed by the artistic team which designed the stations along the Wearside extension of the in 2002.
It is situated on the served by direct services to Newcastle,andas well as further afield toand the Gateshead.
These services run hourly in each direction, cut from half-hourly on 12 December 2005.
From 1998 to 2004, Northern Spirit and subsequently ran bihourly direct trains from Sunderland to via,and.
The services were withdrawn due to a change of franchise which saw the route gain a franchise in its own right, distinct from the Regional Railways network which Arriva had inherited.
Services now terminate at Newcastle, and a separate service also travels to Middlesbrough, but both only stretch as far as.
In 2006, announced plans to operate a direct service between Sunderland and viaa service which had been stripped from Wearside twenty years earlier.
A scaled-down service of one train each day began in December 2007, twelve months after the initial launch date, due to delays caused by restoring rolling stock and a protracted court case against which Grand Central won.
The service increased to three departures daily each way on 1 March 2008, connecting a line which can run from Edinburgh to London.
The service has proved so popular that daily fourth and fifth direct trains are now in operation.
When were announced as the winners of the franchise in November 2014 their plans included a daily service from Sunderland to London Kings Cross that commenced in December 2015.
Peter's Metro Station,and.
Sunderland is on the green line of the Tyne and Wear Metro and trains run every 12 minutes on Monday to Staturday daytimes and every 15 minutes on evenings and Sundays.
The fastest, largest and busiest road live boxing streaming free thewhich is a running north-to-south along the western edge of the urban area, crossing the River Wear at Hylton, and providing access north to thejoining up with the to Edinburgh, and south throughjoining up with the via the atproviding an entirely connection between Sunderland and the.
The A19 originally ran through Sunderland city centre until the bypass was built in the 1970s; this route is now the A1018.
There are four main roads which support the city centre.
The Durham Road terminates in the city centre, and runs to via the city of Durham.
The starts in the city centre, crosses the Queen Alexandra Bridge and runs through Washington to the.
Most of this road is.
The A1018 follows a direct route from Shields to Sunderland, the A183 follows the coast.
After crossing the bridge, the A1018 follows a relatively straight path to the south of Sunderland where it merges with the A19.
The A183 becomes Chester Road and heads west out of the city to the A1 at.
This is a bypass of the A1018 through Grangetown and Ryhope — a stretch that commonly suffered fromespecially during.
The bypass starts just south of Ryhope, and runs parallel to the cliff tops into Hendon, largely avoiding residential areas.
The scheme will improve transport links around the city ensuring continuous dual carriageway between the A19 road and the port of Sunderland.
The scheme also includes the building of a new wear bridge between Pallion on the south embankment and Castletown to the north.
With 750,000 passengers per year it is the busiest bus and coach station in Britain after inand has won several awards for innovative design.
The majority of bus services in Sunderland are provided by andwith a handful of services provided by.
Besides these, there are also inter state and inter city route buses mainly operated by and.
A new Metro station was built underneath the bus concourse to provide a direct interchange as part of the extension to South Hylton in 2002.
The National Route 1 runs from Ryhope in the south, through the centre of the city, and then along the coast towards South Shields.
Britain's most popular long-distance — The 'C2C' — traditionally starts or ends when the cyclist dips their wheel in the sea on Roker beach.
The '' 'Wear-to-' route, and the 'Two-Rivers' Tyne and Wear route also terminate in Sunderland.
The port offers a total of 17 quays handling cargoes including forest products, non-ferrous metals, steel, aggregates and refined oil products, limestone, chemicals and maritime cranes.
It also handles offshore supply vessels and has ship repair and facilities.
The river berths are deepwater andwhile the South Docks are entered via a lock with an 18.
He wrote most of at as well as "".
Some parts of the area are also widely believed to be the inspiration for his Alice in Wonderland stories, such as Hylton Castle and Backhouse Park.
There is a statue to Carroll in Whitburn library.
Lewis Carroll was also a visitor to the Rectory of Holy Trinity Church, Southwick; then a township independent of Sunderland.
Carroll's connection with Sunderland, and the area's history, is documented in 's 2007 graphic novel.
More recently, Sunderland-bornwriter of the series of books, has achieved fame and success, and many others such as thriller writerare following his lead.
The Salford-born painter was a frequent visitor, sunderland casino boxing in the Seaburn Hotel in Sunderland.
Many of his paintings of seascapes and shipbuilding are based on Wearside scenes.
The on Fawcett Street and showcase exhibitions and installations from up-and-coming and established artists alike, with the latter holding an extensive collection of Lowry.
The National Glass Centre on Liberty Way also exhibits a number of glass sculptures.
In recent years, the scene in Sunderland has helped promote the likes of, and.
Other Mackem musicians include punk rockers "Nellie the Elephant", December 1984oi!
In May 2005, Sunderland played host to 's concert atattended by 30,000 visitors and which featured,and.
The Sunderlandhome tois recognised internationally as a major stadium concert venue.
Headlining acts have included;,,, and.
The Empire Theatre sometimes plays host to music acts.
The Manor Quay' the students' union nightclub on St.
Peter's Riverside at thehas also hosted the,and.
In 2009, the club was taken into private ownership under the name Campus and hosted,and but has since been returned to the university.
Since 2009, Sunderland: Live in the City has played host to a series of free and ticketed live music events throughout venues in the city centre.
Initially only intended to remain open for a fortnight, the store remains open and has hosted live performances from acts includingand.
Operated by international entertainment groupthe Empire is the only theatre between and with sufficient capacity to accommodate large productions.
It is infamous for playing host to the final performance of British comic actor who died of a heart attack whilst on stage in 1976.
The Royalty Theatre on is the home to the amateur Royalty Theatre Group who also put on a number of low-budget productions throughout the year.
Film producer belonged to this company before achieving worldwide fame and is now a patron of the theatre.
The area plays host to a number of smaller theatrical workshops and production houses, as well as the Theatre Restaurant, which combines a dining experience with a rolling programme of musical theatre.
It also has its own commercial station formerly an independent station it's now owned by media gianta "proper" community radio station and a hospital radio station —and can receive other north-eastern independent radio stations, and.
The current regional BBC radio station is.
The regional DAB multiplex for the Sunderland area is operated by Bauer DIGITAL RADIO LTD.
Sunderland's first film company was established in 2008; and is known as "Tanner Films Ltd" and is based in the area of the city.
The companies first film, "King of the North" starring and set in the area of the city; is currently under production.
The Mackem dialect has much of its origins in the language spoken by the population.
Although the accent has so much in common with the more popularthe dialect spoken in Sunderland is quite distinctive from the dialect spoken in Newcastle.
Only the porch and part of the west wall are what remain of the original monastery built in 674.
Main article: The earliest inhabitants of the Sunderland area were and artifacts from this era have been discovered, including found click excavations at.
During the final phase of the Stone Age, the c.
Evidence includes the former presence of a monument.
It is believed the inhabited the area around the in the pre- and post- era.
There is a long-standing local legend that there was a Roman settlement on the south bank of the River Wear on what is the site of the former Vaux Brewery, although no archaeological investigation has taken place.
Recorded settlements at the mouth of the Wear date to 674, when an nobleman, Benedict Biscop, granted land by Kingfounded the Wearmouth—Jarrow St.
Peter's on the north bank of the river — an area that became known as Monkwearmouth.
Biscop's monastery was the first built of stone in.
He employed glaziers from and in doing so he re-established in Britain.
In 686 the community was taken over byand Wearmouth—Jarrow became a major centre of learning and knowledge in with a library of around 300 volumes.
Thedescribed by White as the 'finest book in the world', was created at the monastery and was likely worked on bywho was born at Wearmouth in 673.
This is one of the oldest monasteries still standing in England.
While at the monastery, Bede completed the The Ecclesiastical History of the English People in 731, a feat which earned him the title The father of English history.
In the late 8th century, the raided the coast, and by the middle of the 9th century, the monastery had been abandoned.
Lands on the south side of the river were granted to the by in 930; these became known as Bishopwearmouth and included settlements such as which fall within the modern boundary of Sunderland.
In 1100, Bishopwearmouth parish included a village at the southern mouth of the river now the East End known as 'Soender-land' which evolved into 'Sunderland'.
This settlement click here granted a in 1179 bythen the.
From 1346 at Wearmouth, by a merchant named Thomas Menville.
In 1589, salt was made in Sunderland.
Large vats of were heated using coal.
As the water evaporated the salt remained.
This process, known asgave its name to ; the modern-day name of the area the pans occupied is Pann's Bank, on the river bank between the city centre and the East End.
As coal was required to heat thea community began to emerge.
Only poor quality coal was used in salt panning; quality coal was traded via the port, which subsequently began to grow.
In 1644 the North was captured by parliament.
The villages that later become Sunderland, were taken in March 1644.
One artifact of the English civil war near this area was the long trench; a tactic of later warfare.
In the village ofroughly three miles in land from the area, skirmishes occurred.
Parliament also blockaded thecrippling the Newcastle coal trade which allowed the coal trade of the area to flourish for a short period.
Because of the difficulty for colliers trying to navigate the shallow waters of the Wear, the coal was loaded onto keels large boats and taken downriver to the waiting colliers.
The keels were manned by a close-knit group of workers known as ''.
In 1719, the parish of Sunderland was carved from the densely populated east end of Bishopwearmouth by the establishment of a new parish church, today also known as Sunderland Old Parish Church.
The three original settlements Wearmouth Bishopwearmouth, Monkwearmouth and Sunderland had begun to combine, driven by the success of the port of Sunderland and salt panning and shipbuilding along the banks of the river.
Around this time, Sunderland was known as 'Sunderland-near-the-Sea'.
In 1794 were completed and in 1796 the world's second iron bridge was constructed in the city.
Sunderland, a main trading port at the time, was the first British town to be struck with the 'Indian cholera' epidemic.
The first victim, William Sproat, died on 23 October 1831.
Sunderland was put into quarantine, and the port was blockaded, but in December of that year the disease spread to and from there, it rapidly made its way across the country, killing an estimated 32,000 people.
Among those to die was Sunderland's Naval hero.
The novel The Dress Lodger by American author is set in Sunderland during the epidemic.
Demands for and organised town government saw the Borough of Microsoft pandora's game free download created in 1835.
Sunderland developed on a plateau above the river, and never suffered from the problem of allowing people to cross the river without interrupting the passage of high masted vessels.
The was built in 1796, at the instigation ofthe forand is described by as being of superb elegance.
At the time of building, it was the biggest single-span bridge in the world.
Further up river, the was built in 1909, linking and.
In 1897, Monkwearmouth became a part of Sunderland.
Bishopwearmouth had long since been absorbed.
The hall was the scene of a on 16 June 1883 when 183 children died.
During achildren rushed towards a staircase for treats.
At the bottom of the staircase, the door had been opened inward and bolted in such a way as to leave only a gap wide enough for one child to pass at a time.
The children surged down the stairs and those at the front were trapped and crushed by the weight of the crowd behind them.
The of 183 children aged between three and 14 is the worst disaster of its kind in British history.
The memorial, a grieving mother holding a dead child, is located in Mowbray Park inside a protective canopy.
Newspaper reports triggered a mood of national outrage and an inquiry recommended that public venues be fitted with a minimum number of outward openingwhich led to the invention of 'push bar' emergency doors.
This law remains in force.
Victoria Hall remained in use until 1941 when it was destroyed by a bomb.
The public transport network was enhanced in 1900 - 1919 with an.
The trams were gradually replaced by buses during the 1940s before being completely axed in 1954.
The First World War led to a notable increase in shipbuilding but also resulted in the town being targeted by a raid in 1916.
The Monkwearmouth area was struck on 1 April 1916 and 22 lives were lost.
Many citizens also served in the armed forces during this period, over 25,000 men from a population of 151,000.
Sunderland viewed from above in 1967 With the outbreak of in 1939, Sunderland was a key target of the just click for source, who claimed the lives of 267 people in the town, caused damage or destruction to 4,000 homes, and devastated local industry.
After the war, more housing was developed.
The town's boundaries expanded in 1967 when neighbouring,and were incorporated into Sunderland.
During the second half of the 20th century shipbuilding and coalmining declined; shipbuilding ended in 1988 and coalmining in 1993.
At the worst of the unemployment crisis up to 20% of the local workforce were unemployed in the mid-1980s.
Some new industries developed in the area at this time, and the service sector expanded during the 1980s and 1990s.
In 1986 Japanese car manufacturer opened its factory in Washington, which has since gone on to become the UK's largest car factory.
Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK Ltd in Sunderland.
Factory complex, including wind turbines, taken from Penshaw Monument From 1990, the banks of the Wear were regenerated with the creation of housing, https://gsdonline.ru/box/live-games-boxing-day.html parks and business centres on former shipbuilding sites.
Alongside the creation of the the has built a new campus on the.
The clearance of the site on the north west fringe of the city centre created a further opportunity for development in the city centre.
Sunderland received city status in 1992.
The 20th century saw established as the Wearside area's greatest claim to sporting fame.
Founded in 1879 as Sunderland and District Teachers A.
By 1936 the club had been league champions on five occasions.
They won their first inbut their only post- major honour came in 1973 when they won a.
They have had a checkered history and dropped into the old third division for a season and been relegated thrice from thetwice with the lowest points ever, earning the club a reputation as a.
After 99 years at the historic stadium, the club moved to the 42,000-seat on the banks of the River Wear in 1997.
At the time, it was the largest stadium built by an English football club since the 1920s, and has since been expanded to hold nearly 50,000 seated spectators.
Like many cities, Sunderland comprises a number of areas with their own distinct histories,Monkwearmouth,and on the northern learn more here of the Wear, and Bishopwearmouth and Hendon to the south.
Many fine old buildings remain despite the bombing that occurred during World War II.
Religious buildings include Holy Trinity Church, built in 1719 for an independent Sunderland, St.
Michael's Church, built as Bishopwearmouth Parish Church and now known as Sunderland Minster and St.
Peter's Church, Monkwearmouth, part of which dates from AD 674, and was the original monastery.
Andrew's Roker, known as the "Cathedral of the ", contains work byand.
On 24 March 2004, the city adopted St.
Benedict Biscop as its.
It takes place primarily along the sea front at Roker and Seaburn, Sunderland also hosts the free International Festival of Kites, Music and Dance, which attracts kite-makers from around the world to Northumbria Playing Fields, Washington.
Every year the city hosts a large memorial service, the sunderland casino boxing in the UK outside in 2006.
Sunderland's inaugural film festival took place in December 2003 at the Bonded Warehouse on Sunderland riverside, in spite of the lack of any cinema facilities in the city at that time, featuring the films of local and aspiring directors as well as reshowings of acclaimed works, such as 'saccompanied by analysis.
By the time of the second festival commencing on 21 January 2005, a new cinema multiplex had opened in Sunderland to provide a venue which allowed the festival to showcase over twenty films.
The National Glass Centre opened in 1998, reflecting Sunderland's distinguished history of glass-making.
Despite sustained support from the the centre has struggled to meet visitor targets since it opened.
Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens, on Borough Road, was the first municipally funded museum in the country outside London.
It houses a comprehensive collection of the locally produced pottery.
The City Library Arts Centre, on Fawcett Street, housed the Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art until the library was closed in January 2017.
The library service was relocated to the Museum and Winter Gardens and the Gallery for Contemporary Art transferred to Sunderland University.
The city possesses a number of public parks.
Several of these are historic, includingand.
In the early 2000s, was opened opposite.
The city's parks have secured several commendments on its commitment to preserving natural facilities, receiving the collective in 1993, 1997 and 2000.
The club, which currently plays in following consecutive relegations from the and theis based at the 49,000 seat capacitywhich was opened in 1997.
C also has the north-east's top women's football team,They currently play in the top tier of English women's football —.
Despite their financial struggles.
Sunderland were league champions six times within the first half century, but have not achieved this accolade since 1936.
Their other notable successes include glory in 1937 and 1973 and winning the title with a then record of 105 points in 1999.
Sunderland AFC's longest stadium occupancy so far was of for 99 years beginning in 1898, with relocation taking place due to the stadium's confined location and the need to build an all-seater stadium.
The initial relocation plan, announced in the early 1990s, had been for a stadium to be situated alongside the Nissan factory, but these were abandoned in favour of the Stadium of Light at on the site of a just click for source the banks of the River Wear that had closed at the end of 1993.
The city also has two non-league sides, of the and Sunderland West End FC of thewho play at the Ford Quarry Complex.
Sunderland's amateur and clubs are both based in.
The Ashbrooke ground was opened on 30 May 1887.
View of the Stadium of Light from the opposite side of the River Wear.
The Crowtree Leisure Centre has also played host to a number of important boxing matches and snooker championships including the 2003 Snooker World Trickshot and Premier League Final.
In September 2005, TV cameras captured international boxing bouts featuring local boxersStuart Kennedy and.
The latter became Sunderland's first Olympic medallist when he won a in the light heavyweight boxing category for at the.
Constructed at a cost of £20 million, it is the only Olympic sized 50 m pool between and and has six diving boards, which stand at 1 m, 3 m and 5 m.
Athletics is also a popular sport in the city, with Sunderland Harriers Athletics Club based at Silksworth Sports Complex.
On 25 June 2006, the first Great Women's Run took place along Sunderland's coastline.
Among the field which lined up to start the race were Olympic silver medallists of the and ofwho eventually won the race.
The race quickly became an annual fixture in the city's sporting schedule, with races in 2007 and 2008.
In 2009, the race will be relaunched as the Run, allowing male competitors to take part for the first time, on 12 July.
The institution currently has over 17,000 students.
The university is split into two campuses; the City Campus site of the original Polytechnic is just to the west of the city centre, as is the main university library and the main administrative buildings.
The 'Award-Winning' St Peter's Riverside Campus is located on the north banks of the river Wear, next to the National Glass Centre and houses the School of Business, Law and Psychology, as well as Computing and Technology and The Media Centre.
The University of Sunderland was named the top university in England for providing the best student experience by THES in 2006.
Since 2001 Sunderland has been named the best new university in England by and Government performance indicators showed Sunderland as the best new university in England for the quality, range and quantity of its research.
It has over 14,000 students, and based on exam results is one of the most successful colleges.
St Peter's Sixth Form College, next to St Peter's Pacquiao live free streaming boxing and the University, opened in September 2008.
The college is a partnership between the three Sunderland North schools and City of Sunderland College.
There are eighteen in the Sunderland area, predominantly comprehensives.
According to exam results, the most successful wasa coeducational secondary school and sixth form in Washington.
However, comprehensive schools also thrive, notably the Roman Catholic single-sex schools for girls and for boys.
Both continue to attain high exam results.
There are seventy-six in Sunderland.
According to the 'Value Added' measure, the most successful is Mill Hill Primary School, in.
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